Conception

During ovulation, an egg containing the mother’s genes is released through the ovary wall and into the fallopian tube. It’s here that it meets the sperm containing the father’s genes that have made their way into the upper parts of the fallopian tube.

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Juliana Kassianos
Endometriosis

A hormone-dependent chronic inflammatory disease, in which tissue that normally lines the inside of the uterus, otherwise known as the endometrium, grows outside the uterus. It can be extremely painful and can lead to fertility problems…

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Juliana Kassianos
Ovarian cyst

This is a fluid-filled sac within the ovary. They don’t tend to cause symptoms and can naturally disappear on their own, without treatment. Symptoms might include pain during sex, pelvic pain…

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Juliana Kassianos
Arcuate uterus

A mildly misshapen uterus characterised by a dip in the top. It may not cause any fertility issues and there’s no concrete evidence as to whether it causes an increase in pregnancy loss or not.

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Juliana Kassianos
Uterus didelphys

Uterine malformation where you have two uteruses, two cervixes, and in some cases, two vaginas. It doesn’t seem to cause fertility issues but can result in complications during pregnancy and delivery.

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Juliana Kassianos
Molar pregnancy

A non-viable fertilised egg implants itself into the uterus. It’s non-viable as something goes wrong during the fertilisation process at conception, which means the foetus and placenta don’t form properly and a baby doesn’t develop.

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Juliana Kassianos
Ectopic pregnancy

A fertilised egg implants itself outside of the uterus, usually in the fallopian tubes, which connect the ovaries to the uterus. They can sometimes occur elsewhere in the body though.

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Juliana Kassianos
Uterine fibroid

Growths (usually non-cancerous) that develop in the wall of the uterus. They’re made up of muscle and fibrous tissue. Symptoms might include things like heavy or painful periods, lower back pain, needing to pee a lot…

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Juliana Kassianos
Adenomyosis

When cells of the inner lining of the uterus (endometrium), are found in the uterus wall (myometrium). Symptoms might include heavy, painful or irregular periods. It may impact fertility and treatment can alleviate symptoms.

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Juliana Kassianos
Ovarian cancer

The ovaries are two reproductive glands that produce eggs, as well as the hormones oestrogen and progesterone. Ovarian cancer is when cells in the ovary grow out of control and form a tumour.

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Juliana Kassianos
Egg

By the end of a mother’s first trimester of pregnancy, a baby girl has all the eggs she’ll ever carry in her lifetime. They lie dormant in the ovaries until she reaches puberty, when they’re released once a month.

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Juliana Kassianos
Male reproductive system

The male reproductive system includes the testes, spermatic ducts, accessory glands including the seminal vesicles and prostate gland, and the penis. They work together to produce and release semen.

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Juliana Kassianos
Undescended testicles

Shortly before birth, the testes which have formed in a baby boy during the mother’s pregnancy, descend into the scrotum. However, sometimes this doesn’t happen and one or both testicles stay in the abdomen and only move part the way down.

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Juliana Kassianos
Testes

The testes are two small oval shaped organs located in the scrotal sac outside the body, one on either side of the penis. They are responsible for producing sperm and secreting testosterone. Sperm is produced in the seminiferous tubules.

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Juliana Kassianos
Prostate cancer

The prostate is a small gland between the bladder and penis, that helps to make the fluid that makes up semen, which carries the sperm. Prostate cancer develops when cells in the prostate, begin to reproduce uncontrollably.

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Juliana Kassianos
Sperm

During sexual intercourse, an erect penis is inserted into the vagina. During orgasm, the penis releases semen, which contains sperm, that start to swim up from the vagina, through the cervix, into the uterus and into the upper parts of the fallopian tubes.

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Juliana Kassianos